Once you’ve completed (Step 1) and (Step 2) you’re ready to design your study and select your research methods. The selection of a different research method will result in different outcome. For example:
- Use a Quantitative method if you’re interested in whether something works
- Use a Qualitative method if you want to know why or how something works
- Use a Mixed Method to quantitatively explore whether something works followed by a qualitative investigation of why that is the case.
By developing a well-designed study, you’ll be thinking about the type of data you’ll collect (Step 7) for your data analysis (Step 8). When designing your study, think about service user involvement, sampling your study population, statistical analysis, data sharing, and intellectual property. Here are some resources to help you.
Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed-Methods Research
Qualitative research allows you to understanding how your research topic could potentially be transferred to another context. Your data could be anything from a short response to an open-ended questionnaire question to an hour-long transcribed interview or focus group.
Quantitative research uses numbers, such as routine statistics, to develop your understanding of a research topic.
Mixed-methods research collects and analyses qualitative and quantitative data within the same study.
Here are some resources to help you decide whether a qualitative, quantitative or mixed- methods approach is best for your project:
- National Centre for Research Methods:
- How to choose a research method – provides a flowchart to help you decide on the best research method for your project
- NCRM Online learning resources – includes video tutorials and supporting materials: presentation slides, video transcripts; related datasets; recommended readings; and links to related research
- American Library Association‘s Reference and User Services Association:
Good questionnaire design is important for securing high quality data to enable accurate data analysis. Questionnaires can include:
- Open questions, which typically prompt qualitative data collection and analysis
- Closed questions, which typically prompt quantitative data collection and analysis
If you want to use a questionnaire to collect data it’s generally recommended that you use a tried and tested or pre-validated questionnaire. These will be have been evaluated to confirm they’re collecting or measuring what they’re intended to; you may have found examples of pre-validated questionnaires when you were reviewing the literature (Step 2).
Alternatively, here are some sources to assist in developing your own questionnaire:
- Robinson, M. (2020). Questionnaire design – open-source teaching resource from the University of Leeds on the designing and administering of questionnaires
- STATS New Zealand. (2019). A guide to good survey design (fifth edition) – this guide highlights issues you might encounter when planning, undertaking, commissioning, managing, and processing a survey or survey data
- Trochim, W. M. K. (2020). Survey research. In W. M. K. Trochim (Ed.), Research Methods Knowledge Base – online textbook that includes an overview of survey types, selecting the best survey method for you and question design
As discussed in Step 1: Turning Your Idea into a Research Question, involving service users is now common in all stages of research, not only as research participants but also as researchers. INVOLVE, the National Institute for Health Research funded initiative to support active public involvement in NHS research, provides detailed guides on how to involve users in your research.
Sampling is used when it’s not possible or practical to include the entire research population in your project. There are many types of sampling including:
- Probability sampling, when you’re seeking a sample that is representative of the wider population
- Random sampling, when every person in the population has an equal chance of being selected
- Purposive sampling, when you rely on your judgment about who will participate in your study.
Here are some online guides to find out more about sampling:
- National Audit Office. (2001). A practical guide to sampling. London: National Audit Officen – accessible online guide to sampling techniques
- Trochim, W. M. K. (2020). Sampling. In W. M. K. Trochim (Ed.), Research Methods Knowledge Base – overview of sampling including sampling terminology and distinguishing between types of sampling
There are two basic types of statistical analysis, descriptive and inferential.
- Descriptive statistics can help you summarise and describe the results of your research, including basic frequency reporting, numerical calculations, graphs or tables.
- Inferential statistics make inferences or predictions based on the data you’ve collected.
When it comes to statistical analysis, it may be helpful to get statistical advice as part of your research project. Here are some resources to get you started with statistical analysis:
- JASP. (2020). Getting started – an open source statistics package. It provides a basic introduction to types of data you’re likely to use in statistical analysis
- Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2004). OECD glossary of statistical terms – comprehensive list of terms you may encounter or need to use when undertaking statistical analysis
- The Researching Librarian. (2020). Statistics and statistical methods – blog post of statistics related web resources helpful for librarians doing research
- Trochim, W. M. K. (2020). Statistical terms in sampling. In W. M. K. Trochim (Ed.), Research Methods Knowledge Base – overview of statistical terms related to sampling
- Vaughan, L. (2001). Statistical methods for the information professional: a practical, painless approach to understanding, using and interpreting statistics. Maryland: American Society for Information Science and Technology – a well written text which offers accessible insights into potential difficult concepts
It’s increasingly common to pre-register a study, sharing your research plan with the goal of improving the quality and transparency of studies and, in the case of reviews, avoiding duplication.
- Open Science Framework (OSF) – maintained by the Center for Open Science (COS), the Open Science Framework provides a place to document and archive study designs, materials, and data. Particularly relevant for quantitative studies
- PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews – a place to pre-register your systematic review protocol
Data sharing aims to facilitate maximum benefits of research data to the widest possible community. The aim behind data sharing is to make your data discoverable for potential reuse while respecting the confidentiality and privacy of research participants. Increasingly, journals, publishers and funding bodies require data underpinning research to be deposited in an accessible repository. More information on data sharing can be found at:
- British Library. (2020). DataCite – The British Library is a member of DataCite, a non-profit international organisation building a community around a common standard for identifying and sharing data
- Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC). (2020). Research data policy – aimed at ESRC funded projects, this policy is a useful for key issues related to research data including copyright, confidentiality, security and ethics
- UK Research and Innovation. (2020). Common principles on data policy – provides a framework for data management and sharing
It’s important to start thinking about how you plan to disseminate your findings (Step 9 ) earlier in your project than you might imagine because it will inform other decisions, like what you’ll need to report, the notes you’ll need to keep to inform that reporting, and the level of detail you’ll be expected to present.
- EQUATOR Network (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research) – Provide a comprehensive set of reporting guidelines you can follow for most study designs, including some you’re likely to have heard of systematic reviews (PRISMA ) and others you may be less familiar with qualitative (SRQR)
If you’re writing a book or journal article, you’ll need to think about the type of access you want for your work. Are you planning to submit to a publisher, perhaps one working with a professional association who uses its revenue to fund professional activities? This is likely to mean a period of subscriber-only access to your work to protect the income stream. Alternatively, are you planning on publishing in an open access journal that makes content available immediately but may require upfront funding from you?
If your project received external funding there may be funder expectations to make your findings available through open access.
- Plan S – advocates for all publicly funded projects to be published in open access journals
- SHERPA Juliet – lists the open access requirements of over 150 worldwide funding bodies
Open Access Publishing
There are a variety of open access options available when disseminating your findings (Step 9) including self-archiving. Here are some useful resources:
- An Introduction to Open Access – produced by JISC, this site provides a good introduction to the variety of open access models available
- Directory of Open Access Journal (DOAJ) – lists 12000 open access journals including 20 library journals. Not all journals are published in English
- Open Access Jargon Buster – developed by Hannah Pyman, Exeter University, based on a poster developed by Sarah Humphreys, Bodleian Social Science Library, Oxford
- Sherpa Romeo – summarises copyright and open access archiving policies for publishers around the world
The NHS seeks to develop innovations that can lead to improved interventions and better services for health and social care. These innovations are covered by the term intellectual property (IP). For further information refer to:
- NHS National Innovation Centre. (2014). NHS IP guidance – government and NHS strategy to capture and exploit innovations for the benefit of the UK economy
Other Useful Resources
- Creative Commons – is the most common form of open access licence. It provides a free, simple and standardised way to grant copyright permissions and allow others to copy, distribute and make use of your work
- International Open Access Week – an annual event that takes a different open access related issue as its theme. Follow at #OAWeek
- National Centre for Research Methods– research methods training courses and events. If you identify that you have a training need, this database provides a comprehensive list of forthcoming UK research training events
The following general research guides may be helpful:
- Grant, M. J., Sen, B., & Spring, H. (Eds.). (2013). Research, evaluation and audit: key steps in demonstrating your value. London: Facet Publishing – all the information you need get started with your first research project
- Moore, N. (2006). How to do research: a practical guide to designing and managing research projects. (3rd ed.). London: Facet Publishing – guide to the complete research process
- Pickard, A. J. (2013). Research methods in information. (2nd ed.). London: Facet Publishing – a practical exploration of the whole research process
Having identified the best method to answer your research question, you’re ready to look into funding your research. Go to Step 4.